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Wolf Info
Comparing Wolves and Dogs

Trait
Wolf
Dog
General activity level
High, especially if high ranking
Great breed variation-hypoactive or hyperactive
Neophobia
Common, usually low habituation
Rare, high tolerance and habituation
Secondary socialization
Limited
Enhanced in most breeds except guard dogs
Dependence / trainability
Minimal
Enhanced in most breeds
Vocalizations
Group howling
Common, social activity
Similar, but includes barks & yelps
Barking
Rare, threat only
Common in many contexts
Displays & action patterns
Complex & variable repertoire
Basically similar to wolf
Face-lick greeting
Common, but low frequency
Higher frequency, especially in toy breeds
Sequences of behavior, e.g. Hunting-tracking, herding, stalking, killing & retrieving
Social cooperation & hunting strategy, flexible senses
Inhibited or truncated sequences in "specialist" breeds, specialized use of senses in some breeds
Pack behavior
Intense
Variable
Sexual behavior
Maturation
2 years
6-9 months
Female season
One annual estrus
Two estrus cycles per year
Male season
Seasonal
Constant
Maternal / Paternal behavior
Male & female regurgitate for pups
Variable, often absent especially in males
Major physical characteristics
Teeth
Jaw pressure ~1200 psi
Jaw pressure ~700 psi
Coat color
Usually adaptively cryptic & unbroken
Great variation in color & texture
Supracaudal tail gland
Present
Inactive except in "wolflike" breeds
Brain size (relative to body proportion)

Reduced up to 30%

— Fox, Michael W.; "The Dog: Its Domestication and Behavior"
RK Krieger Publishing Co., 1987


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